Saffron Terror – A Political Conspiracy!

In the previous post we explained how the entire Ishrat Jehan Episode was planned by previous Congress Govt. to eliminate a rising political opponent, Mr. Narendra Modi, either physically, politically or judicially.

Lead by Sonia and Rahul Gandhi and represented by Ex-PM Dr. Manmohan Singh, Ex Home Ministers P. Chidamabram and Sushil Kumar Shinde, all of them misused and abused the constitutional offices under oath and compromised the national security of this country and protecting the enemies who has been killing our citizens in the terror attacks and bleeding India.

A series of low-intensity terror attacks targeting Muslims were conducted to create a “Saffron Terror” background, and 26/11 was the culmination. Hindu extremist organizations have been accused of involvement in terrorist attacks like 2006 Malegaon blasts, Mecca Masjid bombing (Hyderabad), Samjhauta Express bombings and the Ajmer Sharif Dargah blast. In this post, we will focus on each such terror allegations, especially the Samjhauta Express Blast case (since it’s in media limelight today) . 

Malegaon Blasts: 8th September 2006

A series of bomb blasts that took place in Malegaon, a town in the Nashik district of the Indian State of Maharashtra. Most of the blast victims were Muslim pilgrims.

In the September 2006 incident, police investigations have determined that the explosives contained in these bombings were “a cocktail of RDX, Ammonium Nitrate and fuel oil, the same mixture used in July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, a terrorist incident for which several Islamist groups are suspects. Since the investigation was still under way, Nasik Superintendent of Police Rajvardhan declined to give details, saying: “We can’t say anything till we get reports from all the agencies”, but soon released the sketches of two suspects. Report.

On 30 October, Times of India reported that first arrest is made in Malegaon blast case. This is the arrest of Noor-Ul-Hooda, an activist of the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). On 13th October, the DGP of Mumbai, Mr. Pasricha said that they were very close to cracking the case and claimed to have identified the perpetrators. On 6 November the Times of India reported from Anti Terrorist Squad (ATS) that the prime conspirator Shabbir Batterywala is an operative of Lashkar-e-Tayyaba (LeT) and the co-conspirator is Raees Ahmad of SIMI.

On September 12, 2006, Indian Prime Minister said:

Quote: “It will be inappropriate for us to rule out anything or rule in anything. I think there should be a fair investigation which inspires confidence and brings out the truth and nothing but the truth without any pre-conceived notion. That has to be the objective”. Unquote.

Alas! The Maharashtra ATS had prima facie ruled out the involvement of Hindu Nationalist groups.

Samjhauta Express Blasts: 18th February 2007

The twin blasts shook two coaches of the Samjhauta Express around midnight on 18 February 2007. Sixty-eight people were killed in the ensuing fire and dozens were injured. 

It has been allegedly linked to Abhinav Bharat, a Hindu fundamentalist group. In November 2008, it was reported that the Maharashtra ATS suspected the attacks were linked to Prasad Shrikant Purohit, an Indian army officer and a member of Abhinav Bharat.

Purohit himself claimed that he had “infiltrated” the Abhinav Bharat. During an army’s Court of Inquiry, 59 witnesses stated to the court along with Officers who testified that Purohit was doing his job of gathering intelligence inputs by infiltrating extremist organizations. Col. Purohit was given a clean chit by the Army’s Court of Inquiry.It is interesting that, except the Indian investigators, all others pointed

Now comes the interesting part. Except the Indian investigators, all others pointed fingers at the LeT to be responsible.

Qasmani Arif, chief coordinator of the relations of LeT with other organizations, has worked with LeT to facilitate terrorist attacks including, the bombing of February 2007 in the Samjhauta Express in Panipat (India).” This is what resolution [No 1267] of the Committee on Sanctions of the United Nations Security Council [UNSC] dated 29.6.2009 declares. Adding that Qasmani was funded by Dawood Ibrahim and he did fund-raising for LeT and Al-Qaida, the UNSC said: “In exchange for their support, Al-Qaida provided support staff for the bombing in February 2007 in the Samjhauta Express in Panipat.” This resolution is available on UN site.

Six months after the UN and the US announced sanctions against LeT and Qasmani, the Pakistan Interior Minister Rehman Mallik himself admitted that Pakistani terrorists were involved in the Samjhauta blast, but with a rider that “some Pakistan-based Islamists had been hired by Lt Col Purohit to carry out the Samjhauta Express attack.”

Not just UN or US Treasury or just the admission of Pakistan’s interior minister, in fact, independent investigation in the US revealed more. Some ten months later, Sebastian Rotella, a US journalist, wrote in his investigative report titled, “U.S. agencies were forewarned about suspect in 2008 Mumbai bombings” that Faiza Outalha, the third of wife of David Coleman Headley had confessed [in 2008, that was made public in 2010] that Headley was involved in Samjhauta blast.

In The Washington Post issue dated 5.11.2010, in a column titled, “U.S. agencies were forewarned about suspect in 2008 Mumbai bombings” Sebastian Rotella wrote:Quote:

Quote:   “She said Headley had been given a special mission and that he had both U.S. and Pakistani passports,” the senior anti-terror official said. “She said she felt she had been innocently used in an express train bombing” in India that had killed 68 people in 2007. ”        Unquote.

Why did not the NIA name Arif Qasmani as suspect/accused in the Samjhauta blast? Why it did not seek the extradition of Arif Qasmani from Pakistan? What effort did the NIA make to secure the evidence on the basis of which the UNSC had declared Arif Qasmani as the accused in the Samjhauta blast? What effort did it make to secure the evidence on the basis of which the US Treasury Department had declared Arif Qasmani as the perpetrator? Did the NIA write to the Ministry of External Affairs or the Interpol directly for assistance from the US and the UN in the above? Whether it asked the MEA to seek the co-operation of the group established between India and Pakistan for sharing of the information? None.

Even at the start of the Samjhauta investigation in 2007 itself, the probe evidence had clearly pointed to the role of SIMI and LeT. India Today [19.9.2008] in its report titled ‘Pak hand in Mumbai train blast’s, Samjhauta Express blasts”, says Nagori gave a meticulous account of the involvement of LeT and Pakistan in the Samjhauta terror. The report was based on narco test testimonies of SIMI leaders. India Today reported that narcotic tests were carried out in Bangalore, in April 2007, three months after the Samjhauta blast.

It revealed that SIMI activists had executed the Samjhauta blast, with the help of the Pakistani nationals from across the border; while Nagori was not directly involved, two members of SIMI Ehtesham Siddiqui and Nasir were directly involved; SIMI members, including Nagori’s brother Kamaruddin, were involved in the Samjhatua blast.

While the NIA is focusing on the confessions made by Swami Aseemanand about the involvement of Hindu extremist groups in the Samjhauta blasts case, the revelations by SIMI claiming responsibility for the attack cannot be overlooked. The contradictory statements by the two radical groups have left the investigators going in circles, reported Vicky Nanjappa.

Why were these clinching pieces of evidence not pursued? How did the blame shift from Islamists to Hindus? Some elements in the Maharashtra police appears to have colluded in linking Malegaon 2008 blast to the Samjhauta blast.

When leads were thus pointing to Pakistan and SIMI as partners in Samjhauta blast, as an anti-climax, the Maharashtra ATS shockingly told the Special Court through the public prosecutor, that Col Purohit, allegedly involved in the Malegaon blast in which RDX was used, had supplied RDX for the Samjhauta blast though one ‘Bhagwan’. Within the next 48 hours [17.11.2009] India Today online refuted the ATS claim saying that Samjhauta investigators had told India Today that study of the blast carried out by the National Security Guard said that no RDX, but Potassium Chlorate and Sulfur had been used as explosives. The magazine also recalled that immediately after the blasts, then Home Minister Shivraj Patil told the media that not RDX, but, a ‘new type of explosive’ had been used to bomb the Samjhauta Express.

On that very day [17.11.2009] the ATS counsel retracted from the statement he had made earlier involving Col Purohit in the Samjhauta blast. But the damage was done in the 48 hours.

The Carvan, a Congress Party mouthpiece, mentioning Aseemanand claimed that the attacks on the Samjhauta Express, Hyderabad’s Mecca Masjid and Ajmer Dargah, and the blasts in Malegaon in 2006 and 2008, were cleared by the highest levels of the RSS. Swami Aseemanand emphatically denies to have had any close door meeting with senior leaders of the RSS in the year 2005 or afterward. Swami Aseemanand challenges the correspondent to prove the truth of the allegations or apologize forthwith.

Immediately Pakistan said that it would raise the issue of Col. Purohit’s involvement in Samjhauta in the Secretaries level meeting on November 25, 2008. Finally on January 20, 2009, Maharastra ATS officially denied that Col Purohit had supplied RDX for Samjhauta. This was how the Samjhauta focus – later the blame – shifted from LeT and SIMI to Col Purohit and via Purohit on to Saffron.

The Maharashtra ATS attempt to link Malegaon 2008 to Samjhauta which shifted the focus away from LeT on to Purohit needs to be probed, particularly given Dawood Ibrahim’s deep influence in Maharastra Police.

For more details on Samjhauta Blast revelations, I strongly recommend S Gurumurthy’s Counter Investigation To NIA Investigation in Samjhauta Blast Case.

Mecca Masjid Bombing: 18th May 2007

The Mecca Masjid bombing occurred inside the Mecca Masjid, a mosque in Hyderabad. 14 people were reported dead in the immediate aftermath. The IED contained Cyclotol, a 60:40 mixture of RDX and TNT. These are important inputs as they are specially used by the Islamic Terror outfits.

Though the SIT of Hyderabad Police arrested ‘South India commander’ of the LeT, identified as Shaik Abdul Khaja alias Amjad, from Afzalgunj area of the city. Police said that the arrested was linked to Mohammed Abdul Shahid Bilal, a key suspect in the bombing.

The South Asia Terrorism Portal, the Institute for Defense Studies and Analysis, the National Counter-terrorism Center the United States, and the United Nations reported that Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) was actually behind the attacks while excluding involvement by any Hindu group.

The South Asia Terrorism Portal cited Vikar Ahmed as the main suspect in the blast. Mohammed Abdul Shahid Bilal, former chief of HuJI’s Indian operations, was also regarded as a key suspect in the Mecca Masjid bombing, later he was shot by unknown gunmen in Karachi on 30 August 2007.

But the National Investigation Agency (NIA), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and ATS questioned former members of the RSS On 19 November 2010, the CBI produced Swami Aseemanand before the court in connection with the Blast. It is important to note here that Aseemanand made a confession, which was “confidential”, which he later retracted.

It is explicit from the NIA charge-sheet that Aseemanand’s retracted confession almost exclusively constitutes the backbone of the NIA case. The leak of Aseemananda’s alleged confession to the media (Tehelka), which is shocking and deliberate, was part of the design to politicize the case, conduct and conclude a media trial, and to create, at the global level, the notion of “Saffron (Hindu) Terror” for political purposes of the ruling party, Congress.

However, this confession was later found to be obtained under duress. In late 2011, Aseemanand wrote a petition to the President of India describing torture meted out to him during his confinement, prompting the High Courts to issue a notice to the NIA to investigate the allegations of torture.

Ajmer Dargah Attack: 11 October 2007

The Ajmer Dargah blast occurred outside the Dargah (shrine) of Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, Rajasthan allegedly by the Hindutva organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and its groups. On 22 October 2010, five accused, of which four allegedly belonging to the Hindu nationalist group RSS were arrested in connection with the blast.

The NIA court in Ajmer framed murder charges against seven persons, including key accused Aseemanand, in the Ajmer Dargah blast case. Devendra Gupta, Lokesh Sharma, Chandrashekhar Leve, Bharat Mohan Rateshwar, Jarshad Bhai and Mukesh Wasani have also been charged under sections 302 (murder) and 307 (attempt to murder) of IPC.

Senior Ex-RAW officer, RSN Singh said that several blasts of low intensity were planned and conducted by the politicians and then they used NIA, SIT to frame Hindu outfits.

CNN-IBN had reported that it was Home Minister Sushilkumar Shinde, who forced Bhavesh Patel to implicate RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat. In his letter, Patel also blamed several other UPA ministers, including Minister of State for Home RPN Singh, Coal Minister Sri Prakash Jaiswal and Congress general secretary Digvijay Singh, for trying to frame Bhagwat.

Soon after the change of government at the Centre last year, it was decided that the hearings in the case would be fast-tracked and at least five hearings would be held every month. It is not at all surprising that one by one many key witnesses, in this case, are turning hostile. 15 of the total 83 witnesses examined in the case so far have turned hostile since June last year.

“Yet another one (Anand Raj Kataria) has turned hostile today. The case is getting weakened by the day,” said public prosecutor Ashwini Sharma, reported by the Indian Express.

Malegaon Blast:  29th September 2008

India witnessed a surge in terror attacks. A series of blasts in Jaipur killed 63. Since then, other major Indian cities including Banglore, Ahmedabad and Delhi were targeted.

On 29 September 2008, police in Ahmedabad, Gujarat foiled another terror attack when 17 bombs were found and defused. However, a low-intensity bomb exploded at a market packed with Muslims breaking their Ramzaan fast, killing one and wounding 15. Another bomb placed near a Temple in Faridabad was located and defused. Furthermore, the bombs were purportedly similar to those that exploded in Delhi two days before this attack.

The explosions in Malegaon and Modasa took place on the eve of Navratri, a major Hindu festival celebrated across India.

Police said that unsophisticated, crude bombs, identical to those that detonated in Delhi 3 days before, were used. The investigation was led by Mumbai ATS chief Hemant Karkare, who was later killed in the 2008 Mumbai Attacks.

PTI had reported that on 5th October 2008 police had arrested a Muslim man in connection to the bombings. further investigations were under way, with more arrests expected.

Surprisingly, there came a twist in the investigation. Only on the basis of the bike being used in the blast, Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur was arrested along with Shiv Narayan Gopal Singh Kalsanghra and Shyam Bhawarlal Sahu. The said bike once belonged to Sadhvi Pragya, which she sold in 1997 way before she took to a spiritual quest. The Saffron Terror angle was brought in.

On 25 October, two more ex-army personnel were also questioned and in two days the total arrest count mounted to seven when the ATS took in Sameer Kulkarni from Bhopal and Sangram Singh from Indore for questioning. According to the ATS, these arrests brought to light the workings of two groups, Rashtriya Jagaran Manch  and Abhinav Bharat.

The ATS reported that they were part of an alleged “larger conspiracy”, without elaborating what the conspiracy, or the basis for it, was. Allegations arose that the Sadhvi Pragya and others were framed for the blast. Then came the shocking charges made against the ATS by Sadhvi Pragya in an affidavit claiming that the investigating team has lost all moral authority, the manner in which unsubstantiated allegations have been made against army personnel and also detailing how she was physically and psychologically tortured and abused in obscene languages by her interrogators.

Top BJP leaders, including L. K. Advani expressed their shock and disbelief and asked for a judicial inquiry. In response to the whole imbroglio, the then Agriculture Minister, and NCP Supremo Sharad Pawar described the BJP as “unpatriotic”.

Quote “The police have started investigating…If any political party takes objection, it is unfair and unpatriotic. Why should we interfere in the process of investigations?”   Unquote.

On 4 November, the case heated up with the arrest of serving Lieutenant Colonel Prasad Shrikant Purohit. The Indian Army took this matter very seriously, as this was a matter of shame for the men in uniform.

Col. Purohit’s counsel alleged that Purohit, with a distinguished service record in the army, was being victimized for political reasons and that he could even be eliminated by the ATS because of the possession of intelligence data of a sensitive nature pertaining to SIMI and ISI operations, which could embarrass some top political quarters. The ATS had jumped to a conclusion in utter haste without ascertaining the intelligence they have collected about the Army officer who belonged to the Intelligence Wing.

A key witness Yashpal Bhadana, a member of Abhinav Bharat recorded his statement before a magistrate under Section 164 CrPC in connection with the Malegaon case, that he was `coerced’ to give a statement framing people, including Swami Aseemanand, in the Samjhauta Express blast case. Bhadana’s testimony was recorded at the instance of NIA and may change the course of investigation in a clutch of cases, particularly the 2008 Malegaon blasts where Col Purohit and Pragya Singh Thakur were arrested.

Till today, the National Investigative Agency (NIA), has found no evidence against Col. Purohit or  Pragya Singh Thakur in the Malegaon Blast or the Sunil Joshi Murder case and it may recommend the court to drop all charges.

Why frame an Army Man? Who was Lt. Col Purohit?

The Intelligence Bureau (IB) says that it had issued series of alerts regarding the build-up of Burdwan module. However, what is interesting to point out that the first signs of a build-up was spotted in 2007 and it was Col. Purohit who had issued that alert and even prepared a report.

Colonel Purohit who has been accused of aiding subversive activities had, in fact, claimed several times that he had become a target and his job was to mingle with terrorists in order to prepare reports on them.

His reports stated that there was movement from Bangladesh, where in some radicals were crossing over into West Bengal and settling down. Col. Purohit’s report is a clear indication that the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) with the able support of the Jamaat-e-Islami had decided on making West Bengal a base in order to target the establishment in Bangladesh. It is also an indicator that the same modules were trying to set up a base for the SIMI in India as well.

Detailing the sinister design of JMB, he stated that its primary purpose was not only to create unrest in Bangladesh but in the long run, target the Indian establishment as well. He also speaks at length about the creation of an Islamic Necklace which would include the states of Assam, West Bengal, and Tripura. These areas have seen a great deal of infiltration over the past couple of the years and even the NIA which is now probing the case has found detailed links between the JMB and these states.

It seems, he knew too much.

If you observe in all the information above, who is convicted in all these Blasts? No one. I have no reasons to disqualify US intelligence inputs on all of these terror attacks as the US has ridiculed any involvement by Hindu organizations. Why was the US intelligence making a categorical statement accusing, not even suspecting LeT & SIMI’s involvement in all the attacks and why is it that our intelligence framing up charges against “Saffron Terror”?

It is obvious that the manner in which NIA has investigated is intriguing, unusual, unprecedented, and explicitly points to insidious and hidden motives in the probe. Given the political propensities and compulsion of the ruling Congress party repeatedly made explicit by its functionaries including the Home Minister P Chidambaram and its General Secretary Digvijay Singh about the notion of Hindu terror, the unusual investigation of the NIA and its rejection and suppression of such vital evidence makes it a case of fixing the present accused.

According to released documents by WikiLeaks, Congress Party’s general secretary Rahul Gandhi remarked to US Ambassador Timothy Roemer, at a luncheon hosted by Prime Minister of India at his residence in July 2009, that RSS was a “bigger threat” to India than the LeT.

This was a bigger conspiracy hatched by UPA Government and its senior ministers. Never in the history of India did anyone drive Communal wedge as deep and in such a conspiratorial manner, as Sonia Gandhi led Congress Party. From Anti-Godhra campaign to the invention of “Saffron Terror”, to Fake Encounters with religious slurs, Congress had a cloaked dagger. The concept of ‘Saffron Terror’ is nothing but a political conspiracy against the Sangh and its senior leaders.

These investigations by the NIA needs to be discarded in its entirely and re-investigation of the case by an independent SIT must be carried out the under the supervision of the judiciary. Otherwise, besides that there would be a total miscarriage of justice both ways – not only by torturing the innocent but also by letting free the real offenders.

This article was first published on MyInMakers. Here is the link.


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The Golden Words of Dr. Ambedkar

In last century, India witnessed many political thought leaders, namely Shri Aurbindo, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. Each one of them was far superior thought leader than Mohandas K. Gandhi. But it is disputable.

What is not disputable, that Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar whose 125th birth anniversary we are celebrating today (14 April), was a superlative figure of the whole lot and his contribution to the Indian nation-state and the people as a whole is undoubtedly supreme.

Sharing a small example. Source

Friday, the 25th November 1949

The Constituent Assembly of India met in the Constitution Hall, New Delhi, at Ten of the Clock, Mr. President (The Honourable Dr. Rajendra Prasad) in the Chair.


After a detailed deliberation, finally, Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee stood to clarify the charges, condemnation, and applaud and delivered a speech, every word of which is a piece of Gold even today, 66 years after India adopted the Constitution drafted by the Ambedkar-led committee.

The Honourable Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:

”  Sir, looking back on the work of the Constituent Assembly it will now be two years, eleven months and seventeen days since it first met on the 9th of December 1946. During this period, the Constituent Assembly has altogether held eleven sessions. Out of these eleven sessions, the first six were spent in passing the Objectives Resolution and the consideration of the Reports of Committees on Fundamental Rights, on Union Constitution, on Union Powers, on Provincial Constitution, on Minorities and on the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes. The seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth and the eleventh sessions were devoted to the consideration of the Draft Constitution. These eleven sessions of the Constituent Assembly have consumed 165 days. Out of these, the Assembly spent 114 days for the consideration of the Draft Constitution.

    Coming to the Drafting Committee, it was elected by the Constituent Assembly on 29th August 1947. It held its first meeting on 30th August. Since August 30th it sat for 141 days during which it was engaged in the preparation of the Draft Constitution. The Draft Constitution as prepared by the Constitutional Adviser as a text for the Draft Committee to work upon, consisted of 243 articles and 13 Schedules. The first Draft Constitution as presented by the Drafting Committee to the Constituent Assembly contained 315 articles and 8 Schedules. At the end of the consideration stage, the number of articles in the Draft Constitution increased to 386. In its final form, the Draft Constitution contains 395 articles and 8 Schedules. The total number of amendments to the Draft Constitution tabled was approximately 7,635. Of them, the total number of amendments actually moved in the House were 2,473.

I mention these facts because at one stage it was being said that the Assembly had taken too long a time to finish its work, that it was going on leisurely and wasting public money. It was said to be a case of Nero fiddling while Rome was burning. Is there any justification for this complaint? Let us note the time consumed by Constituent Assemblies in other countries appointed for framing their Constitutions. To take a few illustrations, the American Convention met on May 25th, 1787 and completed its work on September 17, 1787 i.e., within four months. The Constitutional Convention of Canada met on the 10th October 1864 and the Constitution was passed into law in March 1867 involving a period of two years and five months. The Australian Constitutional Convention assembled in March 1891 and the Constitution became law on the 9th July 1900, consuming a period of nine years. The South African Convention met in October, 1908 and the Constitution became law on the 20th September 1909 involving one year’s labour. It is true that we have taken more time than what the American or South African Conventions did. But we have not taken more time than the Canadian Convention and much less than the Australian Convention. In making comparisons on the basis of time consumed, two things must be remembered. One is that the Constitutions of America, Canada, South Africa and Australia are much smaller than ours. Our Constitution as I said contains 395 articles while the American has just seven articles, the first four of which are divided into sections which total up to 21, the Canadian has 147, Australian 128 and South African 153 sections. The second thing to be remembered is that the makers of the Constitutions of America, Canada, Australia and South Africa did not have to face the problem of amendments. They were passed as moved. On the other hand, this Constituent Assembly had to deal with as many as 2,473 amendments. Having regard to these facts the charge of dilatoriness seems to me quite unfounded and this Assembly may well congratulate itself for having accomplished so formidable a task in so short a time.

    Turning to the quality of the work done by the Drafting Committee, Mr. Naziruddin Ahmed felt it his duty to condemn it outright. In his opinion, the work done by the Drafting Committee is not only not worthy of commendation but is positively below par. Everybody has a right to have his opinion about the work done by the Drafting Committee and Mr. Naziruddin is welcome to have his own. Mr. Naziruddin Ahmed thinks he is a man of greater talents than any member of the Drafting Committee. The Drafting Committee would have welcomed him in their midst if the Assembly had thought him worthy of being appointed to it. If he had no place in the making of the Constitution it is certainly not the fault of the Drafting Committee.

    Mr. Naziruddin Ahmed has coined a new name for the Drafting Committee evidently to show his contempt for it. He calls it a Drifting committee. Mr. Naziruddin must no doubt be pleased with his hit. But he evidently does not know that there is a difference between drift without mastery and drift with mastery. If the Drafting Committee was drifting, it was never without mastery over the situation. It was not merely angling with the off chance of catching a fish. It was searching in known waters to find the fish it was after. To be in search of something better is not the same as drifting. Although Mr. Naziruddin Ahmed did not mean it as a compliment to the Drafting committee. I take it as a compliment to the Drafting Committee. The Drafting Committee would have been guilty of gross dereliction of duty and of a false sense of dignity if it had not shown the honesty and the courage to withdraw the amendments which it thought faulty and substitute what it thought was better. If it is a mistake, I am glad the Drafting Committee did not fight shy of admitting such mistakes and coming forward to correct them.

    I am glad to find that with the exception of a solitary member, there is a general consensus of appreciation from the members of the Constituent Assembly of the work done by the Drafting Committee. I am sure the Drafting Committee feels happy to find this spontaneous recognition of its labours expressed in such generous terms. As to the compliments that have been showered upon me both by the members of the Assembly as well as by my colleagues of the Drafting Committee I feel so overwhelmed that I cannot find adequate words to express fully my gratitude to them. I came into the Constituent Assembly with no greater aspiration than to safeguard the interests of he Scheduled Castes. I had not the remotest idea that I would be called upon to undertake more responsible functions. I was therefore greatly surprised when the Assembly elected me to the Drafting Committee. I was more than surprised when the Drafting Committee elected me to be its Chairman. There were in the Drafting Committee men bigger, better and more competent than myself such as my friend Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar. I am grateful to the Constituent Assembly and the Drafting Committee for reposing in me so much trust and confidence and to have chosen me as their instrument and given me this opportunity of serving the country. (Cheers)

    The credit that is given to me does not really belong to me. It belongs partly to Sir B.N. Rau, the Constitutional Adviser to the Constituent Assembly who prepared a rough draft of the Constitution for the consideration of the Drafting Committee. A part of the credit must go to the members of the Drafting Committee who, as I have said, have sat for 141 days and without whose ingenuity of devise new formulae and capacity to tolerate and to accommodate different points of view, the task of framing the Constitution could not have come to so successful a conclusion. Much greater, share of the credit must go to Mr. S.N. Mukherjee, the Chief Draftsman of the Constitution. His ability to put the most intricate proposals in the simplest and clearest legal form can rarely be equalled, nor his capacity for hard work. He has been as acquisition tot he Assembly. Without his help, this Assembly would have taken many more years to finalise the Constitution. I must not omit to mention the members of the staff working under Mr. Mukherjee. For, I know how hard they have worked and how long they have toiled sometimes even beyond midnight. I want to thank them all for their effort and their co-operation.(Cheers)

    The task of the Drafting Committee would have been a very difficult one if this Constituent Assembly has been merely a motley crowd, a tasseleted pavement without cement, a black stone here and a white stone there is which each member or each group was a law unto itself. There would have been nothing but chaos. This possibility of chaos was reduced to nil by the existence of the Congress Party inside the Assembly which brought into its proceedings a sense of order and discipline. It is because of the discipline of the Congress Party that the Drafting Committee was able to pilot the Constitution in the Assembly with the sure knowledge as to the fate of each article and each amendment. The Congress Party is, therefore, entitled to all the credit for the smooth sailing of the Draft Constitution in the Assembly.

    The proceedings of this Constituent Assembly would have been very dull if all members had yielded to the rule of party discipline. Party discipline, in all its rigidity, would have converted this Assembly into a gathering of yes’ men. Fortunately, there were rebels. They were Mr. Kamath, Dr. P.S. Deshmukh, Mr. Sidhva, Prof. K.T. Shah and Pandit Hirday Nath Kunzru. The points they raised were mostly ideological. That I was not prepared to accept their suggestions, does not diminish the value of their suggestions nor lessen the service they have rendered to the Assembly in enlivening its proceedings. I am grateful to them. But for them, I would not have had the opportunity which I got for expounding the principles underlying the Constitution, which was more important than the mere mechanical work of passing the Constitution.

    Finally, I must thank you, Mr. President, for the way in which you have conducted the proceedings of this Assembly. The courtesy and the consideration which you have shown to the Members of the Assembly can never be forgotten by those who have taken part in the proceedings of this Assembly. There were occasions when the amendments of the Drafting Committee were sought to be barred on grounds purely technical in their nature. Those were very anxious moments for me. I am, therefore, especially grateful to you for not permitting legalism to defeat the work of Constitution-making.

    As much defence as could be offered to the constitution has been offered by my friends Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar and Mr.. T.T. Krishnamachari. I shall not therefore enter into the merits of the Constitution. Because I feel, however good a Constitution may be, it is sure to turn out bad because those who are called to work it, happen to be a bad lot. However had a Constitution may be, it may turn out to be good if those who are called to work it, happen to be a good lot. The working of a Constitution does not depend wholly upon the nature of the Constitution. The Constitution can provide only the organs of State such as the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. The factors on which the working of those organs of the State depend are the people and the political parties they will set up as their instruments to carry out their wishes and their politics. Who can say how the people of India and their purposes or will they prefer revolutionary methods of achieving them? If they adopt the revolutionary methods, however good the Constitution may be, it requires no prophet to say that it will fail. It is, therefore, futile to pass any judgement upon the Constitution without reference to the part which the people and their parties are likely to play.

    The condemnation of the Constitution largely comes from two-quarters, the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. Why do they condemn the Constitution? Is it because it is really a bad Constitution? I venture to say no’. The Communist Party want a Constitution based upon the principle of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. They condemn the Constitution because it is based upon parliamentary democracy. The Socialists want two things. The first thing they want is that if they come in power, the Constitution must give them the freedom to nationalize or socialize all private property without payment of compensation. The second thing that the Socialists want is that the Fundamental Rights mentioned in the Constitution must be absolute and without any limitations so that if their Party fails to come into power, they would have the unfettered freedom not merely to criticize, but also to overthrow the State.

    These are the main grounds on which the Constitution is being condemned. I do not say that the principle of parliamentary democracy is the only ideal form of political democracy. I do not say that the principle of no acquisition of private property without compensation is so sacrosanct that there can be no departure from it. I do not say that Fundamental Rights can never be absolute and the limitations set upon them can never be lifted. What I do say is that the principles embodied in the Constitution are the views of the present generation or if you think this to be an over-statement, I say they are the views of the members of the Constituent Assembly. Why blame the Drafting Committee for embodying them in the Constitution? I say why blame even the Members of the Constituent Assembly? Jefferson, the great American statesman who played so great a part in the making of the American Constitution, has expressed some very weighty views which makers of Constitution, can never afford to ignore. In one place he has said:-

   “We may consider each generation as a distinct nation, with a right, by the will of the majority, to bind themselves, but none to bind the succeeding generation, more than the inhabitants of another country.

    In another place, he has said :

    “The idea that institutions established for the use of the national cannot be touched or modified, even to make them answer their end, because of rights gratuitously supposed in those employed to manage them in the trust for the public, may perhaps be a salutary provision against the abuses of a monarch, but is most absurd against the nation itself. Yet our lawyers and priests generally inculcate this doctrine, and suppose that preceding generations held the earth more freely than we do; had a right to impose laws on us, unalterable by ourselves, and that we, in the like manner, can make laws and impose burdens on future generations, which they will have no right to alter; in fine, that the earth belongs to the dead and not the living;

    I admit that what Jefferson has said is not merely true, but is absolutely true. There can be no question about it. Had the Constituent Assembly departed from this principle laid down by Jefferson it would certainly be liable to blame, even to condemnation. But I ask, has it? Quite the contrary. One has only to examine the provision relating to the amendment of the Constitution. The Assembly has not only refrained from putting a seal of finality and infallibility upon this Constitution as in Canada or by making the amendment of the Constitution subject tot he fulfilment of extraordinary terms and conditions as in America or Australia, but has provided a most facile procedure for amending the Constitution. I challenge any of the critics of the Constitution to prove that any Constituent Assembly anywhere in the world has, in the circumstances in which this country finds itself, provided such a facile procedure for the amendment of the Constitution. If those who are dissatisfied with the Constitution have only to obtain a 2/3 majority and if they cannot obtain even a two-thirds majority in the parliament elected on adult franchise in their favour, their dissatisfaction with the Constitution cannot be deemed to be shared by the general public.

    There is only one point of constitutional import to which I propose to make a reference. A serious complaint is made on the ground that there is too much of centralization and that the States have been reduced to Municipalities. It is clear that this view is not only an exaggeration, but is also founded on a misunderstanding of what exactly the Constitution contrives to do. As to the relation between the Centre and the States, it is necessary to bear in mind the fundamental principle on which it rests. The basic principle of Federalism is that the Legislative and Executive authority is partitioned between the Centre and the States not by any law to be made by the Centre but by the Constitution itself. This is what Constitution does. The States under our Constitution are in no way dependent upon the Centre for their legislative or executive authority. The Centre and the States are co-equal in this matter. It is difficult to see how such a Constitution can be called centralism. It may be that the Constitution assigns to the Centre too large a field for the operation of its legislative and executive authority than is to be found in any other federal Constitution. It may be that the residuary powers are given to the Centre and not to the States. But these features do not form the essence of federalism. The chief mark of federalism as I said lies in the partition of the legislative and executive authority between the Centre and the Units by the Constitution. This is the principle embodied in our constitution. There can be no mistake about it. It is, therefore, wrong to say that the States have been placed under the Centre. Centre cannot by its own will alter the boundary of that partition. Nor can the Judiciary. For as has been well said:

    “Courts may modify, they cannot replace. They can revise earlier interpretations as new arguments, new points of view are presented, they can shift the dividing line in marginal cases, but there are barriers they cannot pass, definite assignments of power they cannot reallocate. They can give a broadening construction of existing powers, but they cannot assign to one authority powers explicitly granted to another.

The first charge of centralization defeating federalism must therefore fall.

    The second charge is that the Centre has been given the power to override the States. This charge must be admitted. But before condemning the Constitution for containing such overriding powers, certain considerations must be borne in mind. The first is that these overriding powers do not form the normal feature of the constitution. Their use and operation are expressly confined to emergencies only. The second consideration is : Could we avoid giving overriding powers to the Centre when an emergency has arisen? Those who do not admit the justification for such overriding powers to the Centre even in an emergency, do not seem to have a clear idea of the problem which lies at the root of the matter. The problem is so clearly set out by a writer in that well-known magazine “The Round Table” in its issue of December 1935 that I offer no apology for quoting the following extract from it. Says the writer :

    “Political systems are a complex of rights and duties resting ultimately on the question, to whom, or to what authority, does the citizen owe allegiance. In normal affairs the question is not present, for the law works smoothly, and a man, goes about his business obeying one authority in this set of matters and another authority in that. But in a moment of crisis, a conflict of claims may arise, and it is then apparent that ultimate allegiance cannot be divided. The issue of allegiance cannot be determined in the last resort by a juristic interpretation of statutes. The law must conform to the facts or so much the worse for the law. When all formalism is stripped away, the bare question is, what authority commands the residual loyalty of the citizen. Is it the Centre or the Constituent State ?

    The solution of this problem depends on upon one’s answer to this question which is the crux of the problem. There can be no doubt that in the opinion of the vast majority of the people, the residual loyalty of the citizen in an emergency must be to the Centre and not to the Constituent States. For it is only the Centre which can work for a common end and for the general interests of the country as a whole. Herein lies the justification for giving to all Centre certain overriding powers to be used in an emergency. And after all, what is the obligation imposed upon the Constituent States by these emergency powers? No more than this – that in an emergency, they should take into consideration alongside their own local interests, the opinions, and interests of the nation as a whole. Only those who have not understood the problem, can complain against it.

    Here I could have ended. But my mind is so full of the future of our country that I feel I ought to take this occasion to give expression to some of my reflections thereon. On 26th January 1950, India will be an independent country (Cheers). What would happen to her independence? Will she maintain her independence or will she lose it again? This is the first thought that comes to my mind. It is not that India was never an independent country. The point is that she once lost the independence she had. Will she lost it a second time? It is this thought which makes me most anxious for the future. What perturbs me greatly is the fact that not only India has once before lost her independence, but she lost it by the infidelity and treachery of some of her own people. In the invasion of Sind by Mahommed-Bin-Kasim, the military commanders of King Dahar accepted bribes from the agents of Mahommed-Bin-Kasim and refused to fight on the side of their King. It was Jaichand who invited Mahommed Gohri to invade India and fight against Prithvi Raj and promised him the help of himself and the Solanki Kings. When Shivaji was fighting for the liberation of Hindus, the other Maratha noblemen and, the Rajput Kings were fighting the battle on the side of Moghul Emperors. When the British were trying to destroy the Sikh Rulers, Gulab Singh, their principal commander sat silent and did not help to save the Sikh Kingdom. In 1857, when a large part of India had declared a war of independence against the British, the Sikhs stood and watched the event as silent spectators.

    Will history repeat itself? It is this thought which fills me with anxiety. This anxiety is deepened by the realization of the fact that in addition to our old enemies in the form of castes and creeds we are going to have many political parties with diverse and opposing political creeds. Will Indian place the country above their creed or will they place creed above country? I do not know. But this much is certain that if the parties place creed above country, our independence will be put in jeopardy a second time and probably be lost for ever. This eventuality we must all resolutely guard against. We must be determined to defend our independence with the last drop of our blood.(Cheers)

    On the 26th of January 1950, India would be a democratic country in the sense that India from that day would have a government of the people, by the people and for the people. The same thought comes to my mind. What would happen to her democratic Constitution? Will she be able to maintain it or will she lost it again. This is the second thought that comes to my mind and makes me as anxious as the first.

    It is not that India did not know what is Democracy. There was a time when India was studded with republics, and even where there were monarchies, they were either elected or limited. They were never absolute. It is not that India did not know Parliaments or Parliamentary Procedure. A study of the Buddhist Bhikshu Sanghas discloses that not only there were Parliaments-for the Sanghas were nothing but Parliaments – but the Sanghas knew and observed all the rules of Parliamentary Procedure known to modern times. They had rules regarding seating arrangements, rules regarding Motions, Resolutions, Quorum, Whip, Counting of Votes, Voting by Ballot, Censure Motion, Regularization, Res Judicata, etc. Although these rules of Parliamentary Procedure were applied by the Buddha to the meetings of the Sanghas, he must have borrowed them from the rules of the Political Assemblies functioning in the country in his time.

    This democratic system India lost. Will she lose it a second time? I do not know. But it is quite possible in a country like India – where democracy from its long disuse must be regarded as something quite new – there is a danger of democracy giving place to dictatorship. It is quite possible for this new born democracy to retain its form but give place to dictatorship in fact. If there is a landslide, the danger of the second possibility becoming actuality is much greater.

    If we wish to maintain democracy not merely in form, but also in fact, what must we do? The first thing in my judgement we must do is to hold fast to constitutional methods of achieving our social and economic objectives. It means we must abandon the bloody methods of revolution. It means that we must abandon the method of civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and satyagraha. When there was no way left for constitutional methods for achieving economic and social objectives, there was a great deal of justification for unconstitutional methods. But where constitutional methods are open, there can be no justification for these unconstitutional methods. These methods are nothing but the Grammar of Anarchy and the sooner they are abandoned, the better for us.

    The second thing we must do is to observe the caution which John Stuart Mill has given to all who are interested in the maintenance of democracy, namely, not “to lay their liberties at the feet of even a great man, or to trust him with power which enable him to subvert their institutions”. There is nothing wrong in being grateful to great men who have rendered life-long services to the country. But there are limits to gratefulness. As has been well said by the Irish Patriot Daniel O’Connel, no man can be grateful at the cost of his honour, no woman can be grateful at the cost of her chastity and, no nation can be grateful at the cost of its liberty. This caution is far more necessary in the case of India than in the case of any other country. For in India, Bhakti or what may be called the path of devotion or hero-worship, plays a part in its politics unequalled in magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other country in the world. Bhakti in religion may be a road to the salvation of the soul. But in politics, Bhakti or hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship.

    The third thing we must do is not to be content with mere political democracy. We must make our political democracy a social democracy as well. Political democracy cannot last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy. What does social democracy mean? It means a way of life which recognizes liberty, equality and, fraternity as the principles of life. These principles of liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life. These principles of liberty, equality and fraternity are not to be treated as separate items in a trinity. They form a union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat the very purpose of democracy. Liberty cannot be divorced from equality, equality cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced from fraternity. Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things. It would require a constable to enforce them. We must begin by acknowledging the fact that there is complete absence of two things in Indian Society. One of these is equality. On the social plane, we have in India a society based on the principle of graded inequality which we have a society in which there are some who have immense wealth as against many who live in abject poverty. On the 26th of January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality. In politics we will be recognizing the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In our social and economic life, we shall, by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value. How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment or else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of political democracy which is Assembly has to laboriously built up.

    The second thing we are wanting in is recognition of the principle of fraternity. What does fraternity mean? Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians-if Indians being one people. It is the principle which gives unity and solidarity to social life. It is a difficult thing to achieve. How difficult it is, can be realized from the story related by James Bryce in his volume on American Commonwealth about the United States of America.

    The story is- I propose to recount it in the words of Bryce himself- that-

    “Some years ago the American Protestant Episcopal Church was occupied at its triennial Convention in revising its liturgy. It was thought desirable to introduce among the short sentence prayers a prayer for the whole people, and an eminent  New England divine proposed the words `O Lord, bless our nation’. Accepted one afternoon, on the spur of the moment, the sentence was brought up next day for reconsideration, when so many objections were raised by the laity to the word nation’ as importing too definite a recognition of national unity, that it was dropped, and instead there were adopted the words `O Lord, bless these United States.

    There was so little solidarity in the U.S.A. at the time when this incident occurred that the people of America did not think that they were a nation. If the people of the United States could not feel that they were a nation, how difficult it is for Indians to think that they are a nation. I remember the days when politically-minded Indians, resented the expression “the people of India”. They preferred the expression “the Indian nation.” I am of opinion that in believing that we are a nation, we are cherishing a great delusion. How can people divided into several thousands of castes be a nation? The sooner we realize that we are not as yet a nation in the social and psychological sense of the world, the better for us. For then only we shall realize the necessity of becoming a nation and seriously think of ways and means of realizing the goal. The realization of this goal is going to be very difficult – far more difficult than it has been in the United States. The United States has no caste problem. In India there are castes. The castes are anti-national. In the first place because they bring about separation in social life. They are anti-national also because they generate jealousy and antipathy between caste and caste. But we must overcome all these difficulties if we wish to become a nation in reality. For fraternity can be a fact only when there is a nation. Without fraternity equality and liberty will be no deeper than coats of paint.

    These are my reflections about the tasks that lie ahead of us. They may not be very pleasant to some. But there can be no gainsaying that political power in this country has too long been the monopoly of a few, and the many are only beasts of burden, but also beasts of prey. This monopoly has not merely deprived them of their chance of betterment; it has sapped them of what may be called the significance of life. These down-trodden classes are tired of being governed. They are impatient to govern themselves. This urge for self-realization in the down-trodden classes must no be allowed to devolve into a class struggle or class war. It would lead to a division of the House. That would indeed be a day of disaster. For, as has been well said by Abraham Lincoln, a House divided against itself cannot stand very long. Therefore the sooner room is made for the realization of their aspiration, the better for the few, the better for the country, the better for the maintenance of its independence and the better for the continuance of its democratic structure. This can only be done by the establishment of equality and fraternity in all spheres of life. That is why I have laid so much stresses on them.

    I do not wish to weary the House any further. Independence is no doubt a matter of joy. But let us not forget that this independence has thrown on us great responsibilities. By independence, we have lost the excuse of blaming the British for anything going wrong. If hereafter things go wrong, we will have nobody to blame except ourselves. There is great danger of things going wrong. Times are fast changing. People including our own are being moved by new ideologies. They are getting tired of Government by the people. They are prepared to have Governments for the people and are indifferent whether it is Government of the people and by the people. If we wish to preserve the Constitution in which we have sought to enshrine the principle of Government of the people, for the people and by the people, let us resolve not to be tardy in the recognition of the evils that lie across our path and which induce people to prefer Government for the people to Government by the people, nor to be weak in our initiative to remove them. That is the only way to serve the country. I know of no better.    “

Mr. President: The House will adjourn till Ten of the clock tomorrow morning when we shall take up the voting on the motion which was moved by Dr. Ambedkar.

After thought: Does our present Constitution accurately still represent the realities and conflicts of India after all the amendments made to it.  And if it does not, who is to blame?

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Loyal Descendants – Part 1

There is a mind-boggling web of interconnectedness that relates one journalist-historian-writer-politician-bureaucrat with another journalist-historian-writer-politician-bureaucrat.

Almost every high-profile person in the Congress-Communist establishment related to each other whether it is in politics or bureaucracy or journalism. Recent books by Kuldip Nayar, Tavleen Singh, and Sanjaya Baru also tells the same. Here is one set of sample:


Remember the brutal Jaliyanwallah Bagh massacre, the monstrous act of General Dyer? Even the arch-imperialist Winston Churchill condemned it as a “monstrous event, an event which stood in singular and sinister isolation”.

General Reginald Dyer and his actions were backed by Punjab Governor Sir Michael O’Dwyer and the colonial government of India headed by Lord Chelmsford. Not a surprise.

But, General Dyer and Michael O’Dwyer (who was subsequently shot by Udham Singh) had admirers in India as well. The prominent name in the list was none other than Dewan Bahadur Kunj Behari Thapar of Lahore. In fact, the Golden Temple management (the predecessor of the SGPC) presented Dyer a Kirpan (sword) and a Siropa (turban) along with Rs. 1.75 Lakhs contributed by Kunj Bihari Thapar, Umar Hayat Khan, Chaudhary Gajjan Singh and Rai Bahadur Lal Chand. (Report).

Thapar’s family was newly wealthy, having made their fortune in trade during the first world war, as commission agents for the colonial British Indian Army. Kunj Behari Thapar did everything necessary to please his colonial masters to keep his hold in the British Indian Army. For loyalty during Jallianwala crisis, Kunj Behari Thapar was awarded the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1920. (Copy of the Edinburgh Gazette).

Kunj Behari Thapar had 3 sons 1) Daya Ram Thapar, 2) Prem Nath Thapar and 3) Pran Nath Thapar and 5 daughters.

1) Daya Ram Thapar: Daya Ram Thapar worked in the Military Medical Services of India with the influence of his father and retired as Director General of Indian Armed Forces Medical Services. He has a son Romesh Thapar and two daughters Bimla Thapar and Romila Thapar.

RomeshRomesh Thapar: Born in Lahore, Romesh Thapar was therefore sent to England for his education. Starting as a fashionable socialist, Thapar developed into a Marxist ideologue over the years, and remained a member of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) until his death.

Romesh Thapar started Seminar, as a monthly journal, and established a stable revenue model predictably, nearly all the advertising revenue comes from the government, and a large proportion of the sales are also to government institutions and libraries. Thapar also shifted base to Delhi from Mumbai in order to leverage their growing political clout in the socialist and “socially progressive” Nehru-led dispensation. They were duly allotted prime property at a low rate by the government.

Thapar and his wife grew especially close to Indira Gandhi through the 1960s and 1970s. Although he had known her earlier, it was after Nehru’s death that Thapar became a part of the inner circle of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. This connection brought Thapar significant clout in society and government, and numerous sinecures were showered on him as patronage. Thapar served at various times as director of the India International Centre, of the National Books Development Board, of the ITDC, and as vice-chairperson of the National Bal Bhavan, Delhi, all of which are government sinecures conferred on him by successive Congress Party governments.

Romila ThaparRomila Thapar: A famous “top” typical JNU Nehruvian communist ideologue historian, who gets to  write our textbooks and pollute them with pro-Congress Marxist  propaganda. Thapar’s appointment to the Library of Congress’s Kluge Chair in 2003 was opposed in an online petition bearing more than 2,000 signatures, on the grounds that she was a “Marxist and anti-Hindu”. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) supported her appointment by calling her “a liberal with a scientific outlook”. To Know more about the great historian, you may check this piece: (Eminent Historian’s continuing fraud)

2) Pran Nath Thapar: General Pran Nath Thapar was the youngest son of Diwan Bahadur Kunj Behari Thapar of Lahore. In March 1936, Thapar married Bimla Bashiram Sehgal, sister of Gautam Sahgal, whose wife Nayantara Sahgal (recently famed for her award wapasi) was a daughter of Vijayalaxmi Pandit and niece of Jawahar Lal Nehru.

Pran Nath ThaparGen. Pran Nath Thapar was the only Indian Army Chief to have lost a war (Against China in 1962). However, on his retirement, Gen. K.S. Thimayya recommended Lt. Gen. S. P. P. Thorat as his successor, was however overruled and Pran Nath Thapar was selected. It’s amazing how Pran Nath Thapar’s role in 1962 debacle is left out of history books. Anyway, he was forced to and resigned in disgrace after the debacle.

General Thapar and Smt. Bimla Thapar had four children, of whom the youngest is the prominent journalist Karan Thapar.

Karan Thapar

Karan Thapar: A famous media personality who also  writes columns frequently for Hindustan Times. The Nehru family itself is related, through blood  and marriages, to the high-profile Thapar family. To know more about his journalism, you may refer this piece: (Karan Thapar‘s advice to Narendra Modi)


Son of Sujan Singh of village Hudali in Khushab, Shahpur District (Now Pakistan), Sobha Singh was a witness in the assembly bomb explosion incident on April 8, 1929. He identified Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt and subsequently on Sobha Singh’s testimony, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sent to gallows.

Sobha SinghSujan Singh & Sobha Singh were accepted as senior-grade contractors and building contracts of Lutyen’s Delhi were being given out to them when Hardinge, the Viceroy of India, announced the plan to move the British Indian Capital City to Delhi. For the South Block, and War Memorial Arch (now India Gate), the uneducated Sobha Singh was the sole builder. Sobha Singh bought as much land in Delhi as he could. He bought several extensive sites at as little as Rs 2 per square yard, freehold. There were few other takers, and he came to be described as adhi dilli da malik (the owner of half of Delhi). He was knighted in the 1944 Birthday Honors. The younger brother of Sir Sobha Singh, Sardar Ujjal Singh later became a parliamentarian, and also Governor of Tamil Nadu.

Sir Sobha had four sons: Bhagwant Singh, Khushwant Singh (prominent journalist, and author), Major Gurbakash and Daljit, and a daughter,  Mohinder Kaur.

KhushwantSinghKhushwant Singh was a vocal Indira Gandhi supporter and known to be the most open Emergency apologist. Sir Sobha’s daughter Mohinder Kaur is known for being accommodative with her daughter-in-law Rukhsana Sultana, wife of son and Army Officer, Shivendar Singh. Rukhsana was famous for being a close friend and accomplice of Sanjay Gandhi during the emergency and also later known for being the mother of actress, Amrita Singh.

Khushwant Singh’s son Rahul Singh can easily be found on NDTV or some other news channels defending the serious sexual/criminal offenders, the likes of Tarun Tejpal, Testa Setalwad and R.K. Pachauri.

MalvikaIt is indeed interesting that grand-daughter of Kunj Behari Thapar (Jaliyanwallah Bagh massacre apologist), Malvika Singh  married Tejbir Singh the grandson of Sir Sobha Singh whose testimony sent Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru to gallows. Some reunion this.

The circuit of loyal descendants completes and running in the name of SEMINAR Magazine. Started by Romesh Thapar, Seminar continues to be published from Delhi, brought out by Thapar’s daughter Malavika Singh and her husband Tejbir Singh and is a LOYAL platform for the Congress ecosystem.

To know about more, here is the link to one of its issues of Seminar

It’s a common ploy among the liberal chatting class to hound their Hindu interlocutors as intellectual descendants of Godse. The Late Khushwant Singh, Romesh Thapar, Romila Thapar and now Tejbir and Malvika Singh along with Karan Thapar used this insinuation effectively. Someone must tell them – We may or may not be intellectuals, but you are direct descendants of the British collaborator Dewan Kunj Behari Thapar and Sir Sobha Singh and still enjoying the lifestyle on money earned by betraying India and as being an accomplice to the Congress’s brazen corruption.




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#Budget2016 – Snapshots !!

Union Budget 2016 aimed at the rural population. The Govt had no choice after 2 failed monsoons, have been causing acute rural distress. It will still be called a political budget saying that that rural India is where the power lies, so the budget is targeted there. Bud rural India is where the crux of our country lies. There is a clear and much-needed emphasis on infrastructure. The biggest disappointment till now has been a lack of willingness to unleash risky and high-impact reforms. But the intent seems to be good and ambitious, but as again, it’s the delivery and execution that will matter. Let’s have a snapshot of the budget speech.

Economic Survey 2015 -16: Prices are lowering, inflation is falling.


Budget – 2016 -17 Inlay and outlay.


Increased Fiscal Prudence:

Fiscal prudence

Co-operative federalism: More power to the states


Min Govt – Max Governance: Companies can now incorporate in a day through amendment of Companies Act. Incentive for ease of doing business. New law for targeted delivery of financial & subsidies etc. using Aadhar framework will be enacted. Reforming passenger traffic by abolishing permit raj will vastly improve urban transport & solve related issues.


Push to social sector: Govt to provide health insurance of up to Rs.1 lakh per family. 300 generic drug stores to be opened

Social Sector

Stress on the Rural Sector. Interests of farmers, poor and vulnerable have been given due consideration. The aim to double the farmer’s income in 5 years is a revolutionary step. Quantum jump of 228% in grants to gram panchayats and urban local bodies in accordance with FFC recommendations.100% rural electrification to be achieved and whole nation targeted to be lit up by 2018 May.

100% rural electrification to be achieved and whole nation targeted to be lit up by 2018 May.

Rural 1Rural 2

Towards transforming villages to transform life. 

Village transformation

Infrastructure: Massive increase in public spending on infrastructure; an increase of 22.5% over the previous year. Rs 55,000 crore allocated for roads and highways; total investment in road sector would be Rs 97,000 core. Including Railways, the total outlay in 2016-17 is planned to be transportation development is 228,000 Crores.

Education, Skills & Job Creation: National Skill Development Mission has imparted training to 76 lakh youth. 1500 Multi-skill training institutes to be set up. Stress on better skills, more opportunities, more jobs.



Taxation: Nothing much for salaried middle class. But they should be happy if their tax money is spent efficiently and for creating assets for the nation.Limit of deduction of rent paid increased from 24,000 p.a. to Rs 60,000 p. a.

NoTax on profits for STARTUPS for 3 years will encourage business mentality & will support them to focus on their business.

Amnesty for tax-evaders on payment of 45% flat on declared income. Blood boils hearing this but the  curse of previous Govt. we have to carry keeping in mind that it will bring money outside the system into the system.

Then a “cess” for everything is utterly annoying.

Initiatives for better delivery of public services and enhancing efficiency and quality of life:


Steps towards strengthening the lackluster financial sector: The biggest reform in this sector would be if they fulfill what they promised -> “Govt is willing to go below 51% in PSU banks”. 

Fin sector

At the outset, this looks like a budget targeted to the poor and is absolutely not a ‘suit-boot sarkar’s” budget. It has always been Mr. Modi philosophy to be centered around building small, rural, entrepreneurial India to power the economic engine. The biggest achievement of this Modi govt is the adherence to a “rule-based policy decision making” without giving space to crony-capitalism! Hope they stick to it.



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Uncle Pai – The Master Storyteller

If I say that the majority of us Indian children since the late 1960s have learned the majority of our religion, mythology and history from the comic book called the Amar Chitra Katha (Immortal Illustrated Stories), it won’t be an overstatement.

The creator of these hugely popular comics, a master storyteller, Uncle Pai, was an Indian educationist.

Early Life and education:

Anant Pai was born in Karkala, the erstwhile Madras Presidency of British India rule on 17 September 1929 to a Konkani-speaking Brahmin couple, Venkataraya and Susheela Pai. He lost both his parents at the age of two. He was then brought up by his maternal grandfather till his death in 1944 when Anant Pai was only 15 after which he moved to Bombay, where he studied in Orient School, Mahim.  He pursued his higher education in chemistry, physics, and chemical technology at the University of Bombay and was a dual degree holder.

Professional Career:

From his early life, he was passionate about publishing comic books but failed in his first attempt at creating a children’s magazine (Manav, 1954). After this failure, he Joined Times of India’s books division as a junior Executive. Putting him in the thick of affairs, The Indrajal Comics, which was famous for publishing comic book series like Mandrake, The Phantom (Vetal) and Bahadur, was launched by the Times Group.

In 1961, at the age of 31, Anant Pai married Lalita and the couple was childless.

The idea behind starting a comic book series devoted to Indian culture and history came to Pai from a quiz contest aired on Doordarshan in February 1967, in which participants could easily answer questions pertaining to Greek mythology, but were unable to reply to the questions like “In the Ramayana, who was Rama’s mother? It upset him and he set out to correct it by creating comics based on Indian stories.

Amar Chitra Katha:

In 1967, Uncle Pai  left the job of Times of India and started publishing Amar Chitra Katha, a comic-book series which retold traditional Indian folk tales, Hindu mythology, and biographies of historical persons, with the help of late G. L. Mirchandani of India Book House. Most other publishers had rejected the concept. He took on the role of writer, editor, and publisher.

AP KThe first Amar Chitra Katha (ACK) in 1967 was the story of God Krishna (Mirabai). He did not know that he was starting something that would become a phenomenon.

The stories were simply told and easy to read and understand. And they were beautifully illustrated. There were gods and warriors with rippling muscles, beautiful goddesses, and queens dressed in colorful robes and exquisite jewels and demons and scheming villains with their scary rages. And in the battle between the good and the evil, the former almost always triumphed.

ACK comics were so interesting and fun to read. And the sheer volume of information they provided in a fun way really attracted all of us. Even for Indian kids growing outside India, ACK became their “only way to connect with the Indian culture in a foreign land”.

Mr. Pai, also known as the ‘Walt Disney of India’, was involved in the entire creative process, from the beginning to the end. He would look at the script and the sketches and suggest changes. He was a walking encyclopedia who had a story for every occasion.

Mr. Kadam, the artist behind more than 100 Amar Chitra Kathas, including the 42-part best-selling series on the mythological epic, Mahabharat, worked with Mr. Pai over many years.

The series went on to become a publishing milestone for the Indian comic book scene, selling over 100 million copies of about 600 titles. Despite competition from 24-hour television, video games, and international comics, ACK still sells more than three million copies a year. 

Other Works:

AP TIn 1969, Mr. Pai founded Rang Rekha Features, India’s first comic and cartoon syndicate. In November 1980, he started Tinkle, a children’s anthology of short stories, jokes and educational articles in comic-book format. Tinkle too replicated the success of ACK.

In 1989, Rang Rekha launched Chimpu Comics, which included his own works like Ramu and ShamuKapishLittle Raji and Fact Fantasy. This venture failed to repeat the success of ACK and Tinkle and eventually its publication was stopped though most of these characters continue to appear in newspapers and magazines. Anant Pai remained managing director of Rang Rekha Features till 2000 when he sold it to a Hyderabad-based animation studio named Color Chips.

Besides comics, Pai was also a specialist in personality development. He founded the Partha Institute of Personality Development in August 1978, which conducted personality development classes through correspondence for children and teenagers.

Mr. Pai has written and produced two video films, Ekam Sat (the Vedic Concept of God) and The Secret of Success, in both English and Hindi.

The Amar Chitra Kathas cemented Uncle Pai’s connection with his young fans. The publishers would receive 5,000 letters every month and during school vacations, the numbers would go up to 10,000. Pai’s involvement and the personal rapport he shared with his readers earned him the title “Uncle Pai“.

In 1994, the ACK office caught fire and all the artwork and books were destroyed. They were devastated. But then they published an appeal in the latest issue of Tinkle – asking children to send them any spare copies they had of the comics.

The response they received was overwhelming. They recovered every single copy of Amar Chitra Katha!


What can be the best way to pay tribute to a storyteller? Tell his story! – Reena Puri, Amar Chitra Katha editor. And to honor the master storyteller, On 18 February 2012, the publishers ACK Media, which had been managing Amar Chitra Katha and Tinkle since 2007, released an Amar Chitra Katha title on Anant Pai, which was scripted by Gayathri Chandrasekaran, assistant editor of Tinkle, and illustrated by Dilip Kadam, who had illustrated many of Amar Chitra Katha’s most famous titles.


The creator of India’s most loved comic books, Anant Pai, was immortalized in a comic-biography – ‘Anant Pai: Master Storyteller’.

 Awards and recognitions:

He won Maharashtra Rajya Hindi Sahitya Academy Award, Dr. T. M. A. Pai Memorial Award, Millennium Konkani Sammelan Award and Priyadarshni Academy Award. He was also felicitated with Karpoorchand Puraskar of Uttar Pradesh Bal Kalyan Sansthan, Yudhvir Memorial Award in Hyderabad, University of Bombay Department of Chemical Technology’s Distinguished Alumnus Award, Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation’s Award and Vishwa Saraswat Sammaan.

On 19 February 2011, he was awarded Lifetime Achievement Award — at the First Indian Comic Convention.

Google Doodle: Google’s international and India search pages honored Pai with a comic-style doodle of him on 17 September 2011, the 82nd birth anniversary of Pai. The doodle featured Mr. Pai sitting in his office, surrounded by shelves full of his own creations.


Anant Pai died of a massive heart attack on the evening of 24 February 2011. He had been recovering from hip surgery which was necessitated following his falling down from the stairs a week prior to his death. His last rites were performed later that night at the Shivaji Park crematorium, Mumbai.

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The Left-Lib mask falling apart

3 years back on 9th February 2012, the mastermind terrorist of the attack on Indian Parliament (Dec 13, 2001), AFZAL GURU was hanged to his death.

In the Jihadi Nurturing University (JNU), Leftist students called for a ‘Cultural Evening” to commemorate the “judicial killing” of Afzal Guru and Maqbool Bhat. Whole of the campus was covered with posters and leaflets that described: “against the Brahmanical collective conscience, against the Judicial Killing of Afzal Guru and Maqbool Bhat”


Hear from the mouth of the organizer of the ‘Cultural Evening”, Umar Khalid: “This program is basically about “against the occupation of Kashmir by the Indian State and I make it very apparent here. I am not from Kashmir but I believe what is happening in Kashmir, is an Indian occupation of Kashmir.” WatchHere (11 Secs)n Jammu & Kashmir, no less than the J & K High Court Bar Association, held an

The Jammu & Kashmir High Court Bar Association held an extra-ordinary general meeting to pay “glorious tributes” to “Shaheed Maqbool Bhat” and “Shaheed Mohammad Afzal Guru” who according to the Bar Association, were hanged in “most barbaric, inhuman and brutal” manner for fighting for Kashmir’s freedom. This is a resolution passed by them in J & K:


“तुम कितने अफ़ज़ल मारोगे .. हर घर से अफ़ज़ल निकलेंगे

तुम कितने अफ़ज़ल मरोगे.. हर घर में अफ़ज़ल रहता है”Watch Here (45 Secs)

It did not end there. The Anti-National elements were chanting slogans for freedom of Kashmir from India and also fight until destruction of India.

“कश्मीर की आज़ादी तक  – जंग रहेगी जंग रहेगी

भारत की बर्बादी तक – जंग रहेगी जंग रहेगी” Watch Here: (45 Secs)

Are these fringe elements? Is the J & K Bar Association fringe? Are these misguided youth with poor education who have been misled? Watching the above clips and posters, there is no doubt that these so-called students are high rated anti-national elements who are spreading anti-India sentiments in the hub of the Capital, in a central University funded by the taxpayer’s money. Hundreds of crores of our money spent every year on these swines.

The average age of JNU’s masters degree and Phd attendees is 28 years. Of course, these are not ‘students’ in any shape or form but agents of imperial forces, and at worst, the anti-India soldiers. Dissent is surely not disloyalty in a democracy. But disloyalty surely is treason, even in a democracy.

Now the question is, why is this not labeled as treason? Why should the government not intervene?

Soon the perpetrators realized that the slogans are out in public and can effect a backlash. They tried to spin the matter and blame ABVP (BJP’s student wing) for doctoring the slogans. ABVP, in both Hyderabad University and JNU, only reacted to what the Leftists-Naxals did in support of Yakub and Afzal respectively. What they said in support of Yakub and Afzal is on record and is reported by MSM, so no question of ABVP having doctored it. And slogan like India go back, or “Bharat ki barbadi tak jung” are clear that Afzal is only an alibi, the real issue is hate for India.

The Leftists lied that secessionist slogans, agenda an aberration by outsiders (ABVP). Here is the wall poster from the library for breaking India.


The MHA rightly cracked down on anti-nationals. Hours after HM Rajnath Singh denounced the raising of alleged anti-India slogans in JNU, Delhi Police on Friday arrested the university’s students union president, Kanhaiya Kumar on charges of sedition and criminal conspiracy.

Kanhaiya Kumar’s arrest evoked strong reactions from the regular suspects, the bleeding hearts for anti-nationals.


Soon the whole nexus of Leftists- Secualrs, Congress, CPI, CPI(M), AAP, JD(U) condemned the Union Govt for a crack down on JNU/poor students. They nicely twisted the fact that it was a crack down on anti-national elements and not on the whole campus. The leftists joining the protest in left bastion JNU is natural. Also for the fact that among the lead was D Raja’s daughter Aparajita.

D Raja is the National Secretary of CPI. His wife Annie Raja is the General Secretary of CPI’s women wing NFIW, and Daughter Aparajita is the leader of CPI student wing AISF at JNU.

The whole protest against the arrest was now being led by the king of morons, Rahul Gandhi. So now Rahul Gandhi, D Raja, Sitaram Yechury, Anand Sharma of Congress, Arvind Kejriwal, Nitish Kumar are all standing with people who support “Bharat ki barbadi”, “kashmir ki azadi” & oppose Afazal Guru hanging. The most astounding thing is, no one would ever guess Afzal Guru was actually hanged by Rahul’s mother Sonia’s Govt.

Now all left parties from AISF to AISA to SFI lying that they have nothing to do with the organisers. It’s they who support RCF, DSU in such events and make the numbers. Such slogans are nothing new, march for Afzal Guru or Yakub happening for years and all left parties always joined. The only change is the Govt at the center which is taking cognizance for the first time.

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SECULARISM in India = Anti-National

Today I will tell you all why do I say SECULARISM in India = Anti-National.

Ishrat 6Today David Headley deposed to Mumbai Court and confirmed Nitish Kumar’s Bihar Ki Beti, ISHRAT JAHAN was a Lashkar-e-Taiba operative and a suicide bomber. A very inconvenient truth which was there in the public domain for long and was used by the Secular-jamat.

Every Congressi stooge, Liberal, Leftist, Secular-Politico, Journos who wanted to fix Narendra Modi through Ishrat Jahan, intentionally or un-intentionally are hand in glove with Pakistan’s Terror outfits. That’s why SECULARISM in India = Anti-National.

I wonder how many votes did ‘JDU+RJD-Mahagathbandhan’ win in Bihar in the name of “Bihar’s daughter Ishrat Jahan”? Nitish’s Bihar Police tried to scuttle the operation, later refused to file even an F.I.R. or take custody of the dreaded IM operative Yasin Bhatkal.

Narendra Modi is No. 1 target of Indian Mujahideen, says Bhatkal (Report). N. Modi is not only No 1 target of IM but also of all Secular Jamaat. That is why Nitish treated Bhatkal as ‘Bihar ka Beta’?

“Has Yasin Bhatkal been arrested because he is a Muslim” – immediate response of Samajwadi Party leader Kamal Farooqi. You know why? Because SECULARISM in India = Anti-National.

Read here how a few good men put their life on the line, spent their money to catch Bhatkal just to keep us safe and how India is a thankless nation. Congress-led UPA sent the likes of Vanzara to jail in reward.

None in Congress blinked once while using an anti-India suicide bomber for political means. Rahul Gandhi, P Chidambaram, Digvijay Singh, Manish Tewari… all these shameless secularists, who wanted to screw the nation just to fix one man.

Ishrat 3

Leftists are known to be crooks who work 24×7 towards their agenda of Breaking-India. But imagine how vile this is: Brinda Karat (with a soup bowl sized Bindi) inaugurated ‘Shaheed Ishrat Jahan Ambulance Service’ as a tribute.

No wonder her comrades were yesterday paying tribute to anti-India terrorists Afzal Guru and Maqbool Bhatt in JNU Campus (funded by Govt of India) chanting “Bharat Ki Barbadi Tak … Jung Rahegi, Jung Rahegi“. Soon a “Shaheed Azmal Kassab Ambulance Services” too would be seen as 2019 General Elections near.

And all this is achieved by traitorization of the media & a flawed system of encouraging nepotism. Our superstar “journos” literally went all out to glorify a suicide bomber just to attack a politician they didn’t like. Incredible.

Sharing two of 100s of articles by our celebrated ‘Indian Secular Intellectual Sisters‘ (ISIS), portraying a dreaded suicide bomber as a “moon-faced innocent teenager”.

Sagarika Ghose in CNN-IBN: The tipping point

Rana Ayyub in Tehelka: CBI Acts On Tehelka Evidence Against Top Gujarat Cops

There are two types of Indians:

  1. Those who cried & lied for Ishrat Jahan, won awards only to be returned later, the Adarsh Liberals. These ‘Liberals’ who were so concerned about the rights of Ishrat Jahan, wish they had some if not the same concern for the rights of innocent Indians killed by the terrorists.
  2. People who kept fighting for the truth normally termed as Sanghis or Bhakts.

Thanks to Asif Ibrahim for standing firm, if not for him UPA would have had it easy. Would have easily fixed IB officers and informers. An upright Muslim officer stopped a criminal Govt (Sonia’s UPA) & complicit media from creating a fake “Muslim victim-hood” story.

Soon we shall witness a Shane Warne level spin, from “Ishrat Jahan wasn’t a terrorist’ to ‘her terror links don’t matter, the ‘fake’ encounter is the problem’. Also waiting for ‘Ishrat’ sympathizers to say, “How can you believe a Terrorist like David Headley?”. or term him a Sanghi.

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Forgotten Liberators: Masterda Surya Sen

Surya Sen, also known as Masterda, was a prominent revolutionary and was the chief architect of the anti-British freedom movement in Chittagong, Bengal (now in Bangladesh).

masterdaOn January 12, 1934, the British officials entered the cell of their captured revolutionary and brutally tortured him by breaking all his teeth, limbs, and joints with a hammer. The torture was so cruel and painful that the revolutionary couldn’t even scream. Then he was hanged unconsciously and later his dead body was put in a metallic cage and was thrown into the sea. What was such fear in minds of British that they had to brutally hang a revolutionary? He was none other than Masterda Surya Sen, the valiant revolutionary who shook the British Empire by simultaneously attacking British cantonment, European club, Telegraph office, railway line and armory in Chittagong. Through this revolt, Surya Sen had created a strong awakening in minds of Indians to lift up weapons against the tyrant British supremacy.

Early life:

Surya Sen was born on March 22, 1894, his father, Ramaniranjan, was a resident of Noapara in Chittagong. Surya Sen was initiated into revolutionary ideas in 1916 by one of his teachers while he was a student of Intermediate Class in the Chittagong College and joined the renowned revolutionary group Anushilan Samiti. But when he went to Behrampur College for BA course, came to know about a sister revolutionary organization, Jugantar and became more inspired with their ideas.

Revolutionary Activities:

On his return to Chittagong in 1918, he organized Jugantar there. Every revolutionary group was using Indian National Congress as an umbrella to work. Consequently in 1929, Surya Sen became the president of the Chittagong district committee of the Indian National Congress. He continued to organize the hard-line patriotic organizations and first became a teacher of the National school in Nandan-Kanan and then joined the Umatara School at Chandanpura. Hence, he was known as Mastarda (teacher and elderly brother).

He inspired and motivated students by narrating the stories of famous revolutionaries like Khudiram Bose. The famous Chauri Chaura Incident not only hurt Gandhiji, but also compelled him to withdraw the non-co-operation movement. But with the coming times, Surya Sen realized and was convinced that revolutionary action is only the way to resist the British force.After the death of

After the death of Bagha Jatin in 1915, the revolutionary movement of Bengal had stopped for nearly a decade. After that, with the appearance of Surya Sen, a new wake in the revolutionary movement was noticed. During the Civil Disobedience Movement organized by Gandhiji, Chittagong in East Bengal became a hot place of the revolutionary movement with the effort of Surya Sen.

Anushilan SamitiBy 1923, Surya Sen had spread Jugantar & Anushilan Samiti in different parts of Chittagong district. Aware of the limited equipment and other resources of the freedom fighters, he was convinced of the need for secret guerrilla warfare against the colonial Government. Surya Sen’s only dream was to make his nation free from the grip of British and his first initiative was to attack the British resources and make Chittagong Independent. One of his early successful undertakings was a broad day robbery at the treasury office of the Assam-Bengal Railway at Chittagong on December 23, 1923.Arrested and imprisoned for two years, from 1926 to 1928, for revolutionary activities, he continued to work in the Congress. In 1929,

Arrested and imprisoned for two years, from 1926 to 1928, for revolutionary activities, he continued to work in the Congress. In 1929, Masterda was a Secretary and five of his associates were members of the Chittagong District Congress Committee. Masterda was a brilliant and inspiring organizer, was an unpretentious, soft-spoken and transparently sincere person. He was fond of saying: ‘Humanism is a special virtue of a revolutionary‘. He was a great admirer of Rabindra Nath Tagore, and Kazi Nazrul Islam.His major success in the anti-British revolutionary violence was the Chittagong Armory Raid on April 18, 1930.

Surya Sen made ‘Indian Republican Army (1930). His initiative and action plan was supported by his fellow members and colleagues – Ganesh Ghosh, Ambika Chakravarti, Anant Singh, Lokenath Bal, Nirmal Sen and prominent women revolutionaries like Kalpana Dutta and Pritilata Waddedar. With help of bunch of teenagers, Surya Sen devised a strategy to raid the British armory, cantonment, telegraph office, railway line and European club on the same day – 18 April 1930.

The Chittagong Armory Raid:

A group of six revolutionaries led by Ganesh Ghosh, captured the Police Armory, shouting slogans such as ‘Inqualab Zindabad’. Another group of ten, led by Lokenath Baul, took over the Auxiliary Force Armory along with its Lewis guns and 303 army rifles. Unfortunately, they could not locate the ammunition which proved a setback to the revolutionaries plans. They also succeeded in dislocating telephone and telegraph communications and disrupting movement by train. In all, sixty-five were involved in the raid, which was undertaken in the name of the ‘Indian Republican Army’, Chittagong Branch.All the revolutionary groups gathered outside the Police Armory where Surya Sen, dressed in immaculate white khadi dhoti and a long coat, took a military salute, hoisted the National Flag among shouts of

All the revolutionary groups gathered outside the Police Armory where Surya Sen, dressed in immaculate white khadi dhoti and a long coat, took a military salute, hoisted the National Flag among shouts of Bande Mataram and Inquilab Zindabad and proclaimed a Provisional Revolutionary Government. Surya Sen and about 60 of his fellow revolutionaries liberated Chittagong on 18th April, 1930.

It was not possible for the band of revolutionaries to put up a fight in the town against the army which was expected. They, therefore, left Chittagong town before dawn and marched towards the Jalalabad Hill, looking for a safe place.

While hiding in the Jalalabad Hills near Chittagong a great gun battle took place between the armed revolutionaries & British army. This was such a war that possibly the world had never seen before. Only a handful of men armed with Musketry rifles repulsed a major attack by British army armed with the machine gun & .303 rifles. This is the glorious story of those indomitable revolutionaries who dared to challenge their destiny.

22nd APRIL, 1930, 5:00 PM

The members of Chittagong liberation army were taking rest sitting in small groups over the small Jalalabad Hill. All were tired, they hardly got any food to eat or water to drink in past three days. Yet their determination were rock solid. Everyone was thinking  when the town would be liberated again, capturing the jail, Imperial bank, District court…….everything. They were not ready to give in, everyone had taken a vow to fight till death.

The revolutionaries were sitting in separate small groups. They all were eager to know the current situation of Chittagong Town. To get that information some people members were sent to the town who hadn’t returned yet. At the hill, there was a rail line. Suddenly a train was seen coming through that line. It stopped beside the Jalalabad Hills. The eyes of Probhash Pal (assigned as the guard) suddenly sparked, as it was very unnatural to stop a train without a station. From the train, numerous Infantrymen came out. The news spread among the revolutionaries.

Be ready, battle is imminent. Surya Sen decided to give the honor of being the “Sarbadhinayaka”  (Chief  to Staff) to Gen Lokhnath Bol. From now even Masterda had to carry on Gen Bol’s orders in the battlefield.



Gen Bol roared: “Get ready. Everyone go to your own section & take lying position. Remember- winning is our destiny. We are revolutionaries. We never gave in to imperialist power & we will not today. By any means, we must win.” All took lying position with loaded musketry rifles ready to carry out any order given by their general.

The British army was approaching towards the Hill. At that time they were in the middle of the paddy-field, without any cover. All Musketry rifles roared at once. most of the infantrymen were hit, rest managed to run away. British army leaders Captain Tait, Colonel Dallas Smith, DIG Farmer, all were anxious. They then decided to charge the revolutionaries with bayonets. But the result was same as before. The infantrymen managed to run away with their lives in front of Musketry rifle fire.

British officers changed their tactics. Suddenly, Vicker machinegun fire started from a hill southeast of Jalalabad. Gen Bol Immediately ordered the members on that side of the hill, to aim and return 10 rounds of rapid fire.



In the meantime darkness of evening was slowly falling over the place but machine gun showed no sign of taking rest. No side was ready to withdraw.

Suddenly a new kind of problem started. Due to rapid firing, the rifle barrels were getting over-heated. They could not even hold it with handkerchiefs & couldn’t load it properly. To solve this problem, Masterda himself & his friend Nirmal Sen crawled around to all & cleaned their barrels with lubricating oil. The battle was fierce. Soon some revolutionaries succumbed to bullets fired by Vicker machinegun and embraced martyrdom.

Things were becoming difficult for the revolutionaries. Rifle chambers were getting jam. There were not enough lubricating oil. They started using blood of their friends as lubricating oil to clear the muzzle & chamber. Now Gen Bol shouted like a wounded tiger- “Fire until the enemy machine guns were completely silenced.” All started to fire with double enthusiasm. At day’s end the British Machine guns had to ultimately lose against the might of old Musketry rifles in the hand of those indomitable youths. Darkness fell. British couldn’t dare to stay there. They were afraid of surprise attacks by the revolutionaries under cover of darkness. So they fled away without any hesitation. At night after the enemies fled, the revolutionaries came down from the hill. They were winners in the battle. But their hearts were heavy, their eyes were wet. They lost some of their best fighters & friends in the battle. None of them would come back again. Total 12 revolutionaries died in the battle.

SS Collage


They showed Guard of honour to their dead comrades. The whole Jalalabad Hill shook when they shouted together, “INQUILAB  ZINDABAD! BANDE MATARAM!” Then they were divided in small groups & left the hill for other hiding places.

Police & military returned to Jalalabad in next morning with much larger force & arms. They discovered the body of revolutionaries & wasting no time burnt them with petrol. After Sepoy Mutiny this was possibly the most glorious event when a handful of men defeated a much larger & well armed British army in an open battle.

Capture and Death Sentence:

Surya Sen, being constantly followed up by the police, had to hide at the house of Sabitri Devi, a widow, near Patiya. A police and military force under Captain Cameron surrounded the house on 13 June 1932. Cameron was shot dead while ascending the staircase and Surya Sen along with Pritilata Waddedar and Kalpana Dutta escaped to safety.But unfortunately, either because of money, or out of jealousy, or because of both,

But unfortunately, either because of money, or out of jealousy, or because of both, Netra Sen told the British Government that Surya Sen was at his house. As a result, the police came and captured him on February 16, 1933. This is how India’s supreme hero was arrested. But before Netra Sen was able to get his 10,000-rupee reward he was killed by the revolutionaries.Netra Sen’s wife adored Masterda, and she was horrified by her husband’s deed. One evening she was serving her husband food when a great admirer of Surya Sen came into the house and chopped off the head of Netra Sen in the presence of his wife and went away. When the police arrived to investigate, Netra Sen’s wife said, “I saw with my own eyes, but my heart will not permit me to tell you his name. I am sorry. I feel miserable that I was the wife of such a treacherous man, as Netra Sen. My husband betrayed the greatest hero of Chittagong, a great son of Mother India. You can do anything with me, punish me, kill me, but I shall never tell the name of the person who killed my husband. Our Master-da will be hanged, I know, but his name will forever be synonymous with India’s immortal freedom-cry.”

Netra Sen’s wife adored Masterda, and she was horrified by her husband’s deed. One evening she was serving her husband food when a great admirer of Surya Sen came into the house and chopped off the head of Netra Sen in the presence of his wife and went away. When the police arrived to investigate, Netra Sen’s wife said, “I saw with my own eyes, but my heart will not permit me to tell you his name. I am sorry. I feel miserable that I was the wife of such a treacherous man, as Netra Sen. My husband betrayed the greatest hero of Chittagong, a great son of Mother India. You can do anything with me, punish me, kill me, but I shall never tell the name of the person who killed my husband. Our Master-da will be hanged, I know, but his name will forever be synonymous with India’s immortal freedom-cry.”

Tarakeswar Dastidar, the new president of the Chittagong Branch Jugantar Party, made a preparation to rescue Masterda from the Chittagong Jail. But the plot was unearthed and consequently Tarakeswar and Kalpana along with others were arrested. Special tribunals tried Surya Sen, Tarakeswar Dastidar, and Kalpana Datta in 1933.

Surya Sen along with his comrade Tarekeshwar Dastidar was hanged by the British rulers on January 12, 1934.

His last letter to his friend Arindam Ray comrades, written on 11th January, will remain enshrined in history as the most eloquent testimony of the excellence of his manhood.

“Death is knocking at my door. My mind is flying away towards infinity. This is the moment to myself to embrace death as the dearest of friends. In this happy, sacred and crucial moment, what am I leaving for you all? Only one thing, my dream, a golden dream, the dream of a Free India. Dear comrades, march ahead; never retrace your step. Days of servitude are receding. Freedom’s illuminating ray is visible over there. Arise and never give way to despair. Success is sure to come.”

[Arindam Ray, Ami amar bhogoban ke dekhini, kintu tar somporke jotota jani ta likhlam.]


Hindi Movie – Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Se


Amar Chitra Katha issue on Surya Sen

Masterda’s dream to free India finally came true on 15thAugust, 1947. It is very sad that the effort of the Chittagong martyrs hasn’t been told to young generation in detail. Though, the Chittagong armory raid was been retold into a novel called – Do or Die : The Chittagong Uprising, written by Manini Chatterjee. Even India Book House published a graphical story book on life, the struggle and martyrdom of Surya Sen. Recently a Hindi movie “Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Se”, directed by Ashutosh Gowariker was based on life and martyrdom of Masterda.




Posted in Indian Freedom Movement, Personalities, Uncategorized | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

2015 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2015 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 24,000 times in 2015. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 9 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Albert Ekka – Galantry personified !!

Not many people know him but he was a brave gallantry personified soldier of Mother India. This Adivasi hero single-handedly changed the course of the Indo-Pak battle in Gangasagar in 1971. Lance Naik Albert Ekka was born in Gumla, Bihar (now Jharkhand) on 27th December 1942.

Albert Ekka was the son of Julius and Mariam Ekka. Born and brought up in a poor family, he came from an Adivasi tribe in and was a devout Christian. From the time when he was a little boy, Albert was fond of hunting and like all Adivasis, he too was an expert at tracking and hunting animals, often using his bow and arrow. He was also good at games. His love for adventure and his hunting skills made him an excellent soldier. When Albert grew up he was very keen to join the army since it appealed to his sense of adventure. He was enrolled in the 14 Guards in 1962.

In 1971 Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh) were in a state of war. India joined the war to help Bangladesh. On December 3, Pakistan launched an aerial attack on India. Pakistani bombers strafed the airfields of Pathankot, Amritsar, Ambala, Agra, Jodhpur, Srinagar, Faridkot, Avanitpur, Uttarlai, Jamnagar. Time was 5.47 P.M. That was the beginning of the formal war between the two countries. But soon after the formal war broke, one of the major operations was to preempt Pakistani attack on this bordering Indian state capital Agartala from Akhaura (East Pakistan). It was on this night itself from Tripura also India launched a wholesome attack on East Pakistan.

Albert EkkaDuring the war, Albert Ekka was posted on the eastern front in Agartala. Albert’s troop 14 Guards were ordered to capture a Pakistani position at Gangasagar 6 km west of Agartala. The position was well fortified by the enemy; they were in good strength and in a strong position. The reduction of this position was considered necessary, as it was the key to the capture of Akhaura. Soldiers belonging to 14 Guards led by Lance Nayik Albert Ekka set off from Agartala and slipped into East Pakstan. The Alpha and Bravo Companies were told to attack Gangasagar railway station, which the enemy had converted into a virtual fortress by establishing bunkers all around. The C Company was moved out to create a diversion while the D Company stayed with the battalion headquarters. The artillery was kept on call but not brought into action since the aim was to surprise the enemy by moving into their defense silently and the big guns would have alerted them.

The Alpha and Bravo Companies were told to attack Gangasagar railway station, which the enemy had converted into a virtual fortress by establishing bunkers all around. The C Company was moved out to create a diversion while the D Company stayed with the battalion headquarters. The artillery was kept on call but not brought into action since the aim was to surprise the enemy by moving into their defense silently and the big guns would have alerted them.

It was 2 am when the men of Alpha and Bravo Companies started their march into enemy territory. Enemy soldiers had been observed walking along the track so the guards knew that the area was not mined. To maintain coordination between the two marching companies, Lance Naik Gulab Singh and Lance Naik Albert Ekka were appointed as guides to march on top of the embankment, one on either side guiding their respective companies from the height.

It was 2 A.M. when the men of Alpha and Bravo Companies started their march into enemy territory. Enemy soldiers had been observed walking along the track so the guards knew that the area was not mined. To maintain coordination between the two marching companies, Lance Naik Gulab Singh and Lance Naik Albert Ekka were appointed as guides to march on top of the embankment, one on either side guiding their respective companies from the height.

All was going well till one of the guides walked into a trip flare wire that the enemy soldiers had laid out across the railway line. The moment the device went off, it sent a bouquet of fireworks into the air, illuminating the area like daylight. The two men on top stood exposed. Just 40 yards away from where Ekka was standing was an enemy bunker with a sentry on duty outside.

Startled by the noise and light, the soldier on sentry duty shouted: ‘Kaun hai wahan? (Who is there?)’ It was 2.30 am and he was still trying to figure out if the trip wire had been set off by a man or an animal. ‘Tera baap (your father)’ replied Ekka and charging ferociously with his gun he bayoneted the enemy soldier.But Indian Army judged the enemies wrong and in

But Indian Army judged the enemies wrong and in backfire by Pakistani force, Indian troops were getting killed. This caused a very heavy causality to Albert and his company. He saw that one enemy bunker with light machine gun (LMG) is making the big damage from the bunker. Unmindful about his safety he charged the enemy bunker by firing on them from a close position. His brave act killed two Pakistani soldiers and silenced the LMG from the bunker.

Ekka with raw spirit and resolve could not only save his other injured comrades in arms but also single-handedly destroyed at least two major posts, he was severely injured. He was hit by Pakistani MMG and then LMG, profusely bleeding, limbs riddled with bullets, innards almost coming out, he managed to crawl and crawl and reach the posts one after another.

Despite the bullet in his arm, Ekka was charging like a lion. He was walking alongside Major Kohli when another bullet hit him in the neck. Kohli watched him stagger and fall. ‘But then, he quickly picked himself up, stood tall and kept walking,’ he recounts.

Albert Ekka kept fighting and motivating his company. But enemies opened a serious assault on the Indian force. This serious assault killed few more Indian soldiers. Albert was fatally injured but the safety of his men was his duty. He ran towards the enemy bunker and threw a grenade into the bunker. This killed few Pakistani but the assault was still on. He then crawled to another bunker and stabbed the Pakistani soldier to death. This saved his company from more casualties and gave time to reach at the enemy position.Then he scaled a two storied post (in

Then he scaled a two storied post (in ground floor he killed one and silenced his MMG with grenade) in Akhaura (the last one) and in the first floor bayoneted the LMG holding Pak soldier and then slept by the side of his enemy, forever. But before he died, this Adivasi Hero insured the Indian victory.Albert and his company in this process destroyed several

Albert and his company in this process destroyed several well-fortified Pakistani military posts on their way to Akhaura and ultimately forced the Pak military to retreat from Akhaura in a show of unprecedented and unbelievable valor, especially by Ekka.

But by this time he had achieved his target. He saved Agartala. Had Agartala fallen, it would have not only caused massive civilian causalities but also been a huge success for Pakistanis at least for propaganda as this city would have been the first state capital to go under the Pakistanis in 1971. Unfortunately, in Agartala we do not have anything in his name, not even many people are aware of him and his extraordinary acts that saved the city.

Albert Ekka Stamp

For his conspicuous bravery and determination, he was posthumously awarded the Param Vir Chakra, India’s highest award for valour in the face of the enemy. Albert Ekka is the only Paramvir Chakra in 1971 Eastern Frontier. India government had released a Postal Stamp on him too. There is also chowk (round-about) in his name in Ranchi, his hometown.


Albert Ekka 1

14 GUARDS (NO 4239746)

Lance Naik Albert Ekka was in the left forward company of a battalion of the Brigade of Guards during their attack on the enemy defences at Gangasagar on the Eastern front. This was a well-fortified position held in strength by the enemy. The assaulting troops were subjected to intense shelling and heavy small-arms fire, but they charged onto the objective and were locked in bitter hand-to-hand combat. Lance Naik Albert Ekka noticed an enemy light machine-gun (LMG) inflicting heavy casualties on his company. With complete disregard fo his personal safety, he charged the enemy bunker, bayoneted two enemy soldiers and silenced the LMG. Though seriously wounded in this encounter, he continued to fight alongside his comrades through the mile deep objective, clearing bunker after bunker with undaunted courage. Towards the northern end of the objective one enemy medium machine-gun (MMG) opened up from the second storey of a well-fortified building inflicting heavy casualties and holding up the attack. Once again this gallant soldier, without a thought for his personal safety, despite his serious injury and the heavy volume of enemy fire, crawled forward till he reached the building and lobbed a grenade into the bunker killing one enemy soldier and injuring the other. The MMG however continued to fire. With outstanding courage and determination Lance Naik Albert Ekka scaled a side wall and entering the bunker, bayoneted the enemy soldier who was still firing and thus silenced the machine-gun, saving further casualties to his company and ensuring the success of the attack. In this process however, he received serious injuries and succumbed to them after the capture of the objective. In this action, Lance Naik Albert Ekka displayed the most conspicuous valour and determination and made the supreme sacrifice in the best traditions of the Army.

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